- PublicationImmune responses to intradermal and intramuscular inactivated influenza vaccine among older age group(2017-12-19) Kobporn Boonnak; Jittima Dhitavat; Narumon Thantamnu; Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat; Montida Auayporn; Li Jiang; Pilaipan Puthavathana; Punnee Pitisuttithum; Mahidol University© 2017 Backgroud Influenza viruses cause substantial morbidity, especially in older age groups. Thus, they are amongst high priority groups for routine vaccination. However, vaccine-induced immune responses and effectiveness were reported as relatively low. This study aims to systemically compare the immune responses elicited by intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) injections with inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine among the older age group. Methods A prospective, open-label, randomized study with a total of 221 adults (>60 years) were enrolled and randomized into 2 groups. Group I (n = 111) received an IM inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine while Group II (n = 110) received the same vaccine ID. Demographics and co-morbidity were collected at baseline. Safety data was collected 3 days post-vaccination using diary card. HAI, NAb and NAI titers were assessed prior to vaccination and at 30, 45, and 60 days post-vaccination. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Results Both groups had similar BMI and co-morbidity. For ID and IM groups, significant differences were observed for seroconversion rate measured using HAI against H1N1 and H3N2 (58/111 vs 44/110 and 68/111 vs 54/110, respectively) being higher for those aged 60–65 years. However, no differences in HI antibody against B/Phuket were seen. For ID route, history of hyperlipidemia and hypertension were factors associated with high seroconversion rate towards influenza A (p =.001). The seroconversion rate risk ratio were 1.31 and 1.25 (p <.05) against A/California/07/09(H1N1) and A/Songkha/308/13 (H3N2), respectively. Interestingly, the GMT (95% CI) of baseline NAI antibodies among both groups were high (56.57 and 54.01 in the ID and IM groups, respectively). A 4-fold increase measured by NAI against A/California/07/09 (H1N1) were detected in 16.67% and 20% of participants who received ID or IM vaccination, respectively. Conclusions The seroconversion rates of HAI, NAb and NAI were modest, especially in those >65 years of age. However, it was higher in the ID group as compared to the IM group. Clinical trial registration: NCT02101749
- PublicationExploring the salivary microbiome of children stratified by the oral hygiene index(2017-09-01) Izumi Mashima; Citra F. Theodorea; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Frank A. Scannapieco; Futoshi Nakazawa; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; University at Buffalo, State University of New York; Health Sciences University of Hokkaido; Universitas Indonesia; Mahidol University© 2017 Mashima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Poor oral hygiene often leads to chronic diseases such as periodontitis and dental caries resulting in substantial economic costs and diminished quality of life in not only adults but also in children. In this study, the salivary microbiome was characterized in a group of children stratified by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S). Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing based on the 16S rRNA was utilized to analyze 90 salivary samples (24 Good, 31 Moderate and 35 Poor oral hygiene) from a cohort of Thai children. A total of 38,521 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) with a 97% similarity were characterized in all of the salivary samples. Twenty taxonomic groups (Seventeen genera, two families and one class; Streptococcus, Veillonella, Gemellaceae, Prevotella, Rothia, Porphyromonas, Granulicatella, Actinomyces, TM-7-3, Lepto-trichia, Haemophilus, Selenomonas, Neisseria, Megasphaera, Capnocytophaga, Oribacterium, Abiotrophia, Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcus, and Atopobium) were found in all subjects and constituted 94.5–96.5% of the microbiome. Of these twenty genera, the proportion of Streptococcus decreased while Veillonella increased with poor oral hygiene status (P < 0.05). Furthermore, an unassigned species of Veillonella, Veillonella dispar and Veillonella parvula tended to be elevated in the Poor oral hygiene group. This is the first study demonstrating an important association between increase of Veillonella and poor oral hygiene status in children. However, further studies are required to identify the majority of Veillonella at species level in salivary microbiome of the Poor oral hygiene group.
- PublicationAutomatic quality assessment and segmentation of diabetic retinopathy images(2017-02-08) Worapan Kusakunniran; Jirat Rattanachoosin; Krittanat Sutassananon; Phuthimeth Anekkitphanich; Mahidol University© 2016 IEEE. Diabetes is considered to be one of the most dangerous genetic disorders. It could cause the loss of sight in the case of the diabetic retinopathy. Several medical technologies have been developed and improved to cure the diabetes and overcome the lacks of human experts. This can be done by replacing the manual process using human labors with the automatic diagnosis. In order to achieve this purpose, it requires two main steps which will be focused in this paper. They are the quality assessment and the segmentation of diabetic retinopathy images. In the image quality assessment, four features (namely color, contrast, focus, and illumination) have been investigated. As a result, the contrast histogram in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) space is used. In the image segmentation, the histogram equalization is used in the pre-processing. Then, the image segmentation based on the iterative selection and the grabcut algorithm is applied. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very promising performance.
- PublicationCopper-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylative coupling of α-keto acids and sulfoximines(2017-01-01) Chaleena Pimpasri; Ladawan Sumunnee; Sirilata Yotphan; Mahidol University© 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry. A copper-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylative coupling of α-keto acids with NH-sulfoximines has been developed. With CuBr as the catalyst and K2S2O8as the oxidant, this reaction enables the formation of a C-N bond and gives N-aroylsulfoximine products in moderate to excellent yields. The reaction mechanism is likely to involve the generation of a reactive aroyl radical intermediate.
- PublicationFactors associated with population coverage of targeted malaria elimination (TME) in southern Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR(2017-10-23) Bipin Adhikari; Koukeo Phommasone; Tiengkham Pongvongsa; Palingnaphone Kommarasy; Xayaphone Soundala; Gisela Henriques; Nicholas J. White; Nicholas P.J. Day; Arjen M. Dondorp; Lorenz Von Seidlein; Phaik Yeong Cheah; Christopher Pell; Mayfong Mayxay; Mahidol University; Churchill Hospital; University of Oxford; Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU); Savannakhet Provincial Health Department; University of Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development; University of Health Sciences© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Targeted malaria elimination (TME) in Lao PDR (Laos) included three rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) against malaria followed by quarterly blood surveys in two villages in Nong District at Savannakhet Province. The success of MDA largely depends upon the efficacy of the anti-malarial drug regimen, local malaria epidemiology and the population coverage. In order to explore the reasons for participation in TME, a quantitative survey was conducted after the completion of the three rounds of MDA. Methods: The survey was conducted in two villages with a total of 158 households in July and August 2016. Among the 973 villagers eligible for participation in the MDA, 158 (16.2%) adults (> 18 years) were selected, one each from every household for the interviews using a quantitative questionnaire. Results: 150/158 (94.9%) respondents participated at least in one activity (taking medicine or testing their blood) of TME. 141/150 (94.0%) respondents took part in the MDA and tested their blood in all three rounds. 17/158 (10.7%) were partial or non-participants in three rounds of MDA. Characteristics of respondents which were independently associated with completion of three rounds of MDA included: attending TME meetings [AOR = 12.0 (95% CI 1.1-20.5) (p = 0.03)], knowing that malaria can be diagnosed through blood tests [AOR = 5.6 (95% CI 1.0-32.3) (p = 0.05)], all members from household participated [AOR = 4.2 (95% CI 1.3-14.0) (p = 0.02)], liking all aspects of TME [AOR = 17.2 (95% CI 1.6-177.9) (p = 0.02)] and the perception that TME was important [AOR = 14.9 (95% CI 1.3-171.2) (p = 0.03)]. Conclusion: Complete participation in TME was significantly associated with participation in community engagement activities, knowledge that the blood tests were for malaria diagnosis, family members' participation at TME and perceptions that TME was worthwhile. A responsive approach to community engagement that includes formative research and the involvement of community members may increase the uptake of the intervention.
- PublicationInsights into drug resistance mechanisms in Clostridium difficile(2017-03-03) Phurt Harnvoravongchai; Methinee Pipatthana; Surang Chankhamhaengdecha; Tavan Janvilisri; Mahidol University© 2017 The Author(s). The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has been elevated and becoming common in hospitals worldwide. Although antibiotics usually serve as the primary treatment for bacterial infection including C. difficile infection, limitations and failures have been evident due to drug resistance. Antibiotic resistance in C. difficile has been recognized as one of the most important factors to promote the infection and increase the level of severity and the recurrence rate. Several outbreaks in many countries have been linked to the emergence of hypervirulent drug-resistant strains. This pathogen harbours various mechanisms against the actions of antibiotics. The present study highlights three main drug-resistant strategies in C. difficile including drug inactivation, target modification and efflux pump. Other mechanisms that potentially contribute to drug-resistant traits in this organism are also discussed.
- PublicationNanointerface-Driven Reversible Hydrogen Storage in the Nanoconfined Li–N–H System(2017-02-08) Brandon C. Wood; Vitalie Stavila; Natchapol Poonyayant; Tae Wook Heo; Keith G. Ray; Leonard E. Klebanoff; Terrence J. Udovic; Jonathan R.I. Lee; Natee Angboonpong; Joshua D. Sugar; Pasit Pakawatpanurut; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Sandia National Laboratories, California; Mahidol University; National Institute of Standards and Technology
- PublicationNew Paradigms to Help Solve the Global Aquaculture Disease Crisis(2017-02-01) Grant D. Stentiford; Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Timothy W. Flegel; Bryony A.P. Williams; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul; Orn Itsathitphaisarn; David Bass; Centre for the Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science; Thailand National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology; Mahidol University; University of Exeter; The Natural History Museum, London
- PublicationCytotoxic tropolones from the fungus Nemania sp. BCC 30850(2017-01-01) Jittra Kornsakulkarn; Siriporn Saepua; Rapheephat Suvannakad; Sumalee Supothina; Nattawut Boonyuen; Masahiko Isaka; Samran Prabpai; Palangpon Kongsaeree; Chawanee Thongpanchang; Thailand National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology; Mahidol University© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Twelve new compounds, including nine tropolones, nemanolones A−I (1–9), three 7-isochromenones, nemanecins A−C (10–12), and a new naturally isolated 4-isochromanone (13), along with two known compounds, 7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl isochroman-4-one (XJP), and chaetoquadrin F, were isolated from culture broth of the fungus Nemania sp. BCC 30850. Structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. Nemanolones exhibited cytotoxic activities and two of them, compounds 1 and 2, also showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and antifungal activity against Candida albicans.
- PublicationManaging Networks in the Asia Pacific(2017-03-06) N. Thirawat; Mahidol University© 2017 Nipawan Thirawat. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This chapter reviews a variety of network management strategies that play a significant role in the internationalization process of firms in the Asia-Pacific region. Numerous network forms are identified, including multinational enterprises (MNEs), small and medium enterprises (SMEs), general businesses, formal businesses, informal businesses, intrafirm global production and interfirm global production networks, as well as preclusterization, ethnic businesses, and clusters. The functions and benefits of each network type are illustrated by the case studies of MNEs from India, Thailand, Japan, China, Taiwan, New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia.