- PublicationLighting E. coli cells as biological sensors for Cd2+(2001-09-06) Virapong Prachayasittikul; Chartchalerm Isarankura Na Ayudhya; Leif Bulow; Mahidol University; Lunds UniversitetWhole cells of E. coli expressing a chimeric cadmium-binding peptide fused to green fluorescent protein (CdBPGFP) were prepared and applied for the determination of cadmium. Construction of the structural gene was performed by inserting two synthetic oligonucleotides coding for four repeats of a Cd-binding peptide (His-Ser-Gln-Lys-Val-Phe) into the 5′-end of the GFPuv gene. Similarly, a hexahistidine-green fluorescent protein (his6GFPuv) was prepared and used as a reference in the determinations of heavy metals. The lowest concentrations of Cd, which activated the fluorescence, were 0.5 μM, 50 μM, and 0.5 mM for cells carrying CdBP4GFP, his6GFP and native GFP, respectively.
- PublicationInterspinous bursa and spinal instability(2001-10-01) Wichien Laohacharoensombat; Pornyot Meejan; Vorachai Sirikulchayanonta; Wiwat Wajanavisit; Mahidol UniversityStudy design : This is a prospective study. Interspinous tissue was taken intraoperatively for pathological examination for the presence of bursa. The pathologist was unaware of the X-ray findings in each specimen. The presence of bursa was then correlated with X-ray evidence of hypermobility in each segment. Objective : To verify the pathogenesis of interspinous bursal formation. Summary of background data : Interspinous bursa is common in the older population. It has been associated with degenerative lumbar diseases, aging and anatomical distance between the spinous process. However, no detailed exploration of the segmental instability as a cause of bursal formation has been done. Method : The insterspinous tissue was taken intraoperatively from patients diagnosed as multilevelled spinal stenosis who underwent extensive decompression, fusion and instrumentation. The specimens were examined by the same pathologist for the existence of bursa. The presence of bursa was correlated with X-ray motion study of each spinal segment by student /-test. Results : The existence of bursal was significantly correlated with angular mobility of more than 10° Conclusion : Angular mobility is a possible cause of interspinous bursa. On the contrary, the presence of insterspinous bursa may be evidence of segmental hypermobility.
- PublicationInteraction of a mulberry leaf lectin with a phytopathogenic bacterium, P. syringae pv mori(2001-04-03) Sunanta Ratanapo; Wayakorn Ngamjunyaporn; Montri Chulavatnatol; Kasetsart University; Mahidol UniversityTwo N-glycolylneuraminic acid-specific lectins, MLL 1 and 2, from leaves of Morus alba were studied for their anti-bacterial activity against P. syringae pv mori, which was a specific pathogenic bacterium of the mulberry leaf. MLL 1 but not MLL 2 was found to induce the agglutination of P. syringae pv mori. The MLL 1 can induce the agglutination only at the exponential phase of the bacterial growth in a liquid medium and the agglutination was specifically inhibited by N-glycolylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine at 12.5 mM and bovine submaxillary mucin at 0.05 μg/ml. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
- PublicationSynthesis of 4-aryltetrahydroisoquinolines: Application to the synthesis of cherylline(2001-04-01) Somsak Ruchirawat; Sopchok Tontoolarug; Poolsar Sahakitpichan; Chulabhorn Research Institute; Mahidol University; The Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Mahidol UniversityA concise route for the synthesis of 4-aryltetrahydroisoquinolines was developed using the addition of Grignard reagents to nitrostyrene derivatives as the key step. The application to the synthesis of cherylline was described.
- PublicationUltrastructure of female germ cells in Haliotis asinina Linnaeus(2001-01-01) Somjai A. Wetakan; Vichai Linthong; Chaitip Wanichanon; Sasiporn Panasophonkul; Ardool Meepool; Maleeya Kruatrachue; Edward Suchart Upatham; Tanate Pumthong; Prasert Sobhon; Mahidol University; Burapha University; Coastal Aquaculture Research and Development CenterGerm cells in the ovary of H. asinina are divided into six stages: oogonia and five stages of oocytes. The oogonium is a scallop-shaped cell 8-10 μm in diameter, closely adhered to a trabecula. Its nucleus exhibits small blocks of heterochromatin along the nuclear envelope and a small nucleolus. The cytoplasm contains abundant ribosomes. The stage I oocyte is a round cell 12-25 μm in diameter. Its nucleus contains numerous lampbrush chromosomes consisting of chromatin fibers with three sizes, i.e., 100-200, 40-60 and 7-12 nm in diameter. The cytoplasm has numerous mitochondria, few rough endoplasmic reticulum, and abundant ribosomes. The stage II oocyte is a round cell 25-35 μm in diameter. Its nucleus exhibits increasingly decondensed chromatin and a nucleolus, and the nuclear envelope exhibits numerous nuclear pores. The cytoplasm contains numerous and well-developed Golgi bodies, rough endoplasmic recticulum and abundant ribosomes. There are two types of secretory granules: both have a spherical shape, 350-450 nm in diameter, with an electron-dense and electron-lucent matrix, respectively. The stage III oocyte is a pear-shaped cell about 35×70 μm in size. Lampbrush chromosomes are almost completely unraveled. The two types of secretory granules are greater in number and cluster around the Golgi bodies. Larger and more electron-dense ovoid-shaped yolk granules start to appear. The stage IV oocyte is a flask-shaped cell about 50×80 μm in size. Its nucleus contains completely decondensed chromatin and a highly enlarged nucleolus. The cytoplasm is filled with lipid droplets (1.5-3 μm in diameter) and yolk granules (1.5-2.5 μm in diameter). The vitelline-cum-jelly coat starts to develop, and could be derived from the first type of secretory granules which are translocated to be exocytosed at the plasma membrane. The stage V oocyte is similar to the stage IV oocyte except its vitelline-jelly coat achieves maximum thickness and appears fibrous in comparison to the amorphous appearance at stage IV.
- PublicationAngiocentric T-cell lymphoma of the pancreas presenting as late-onset diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy(2001-01-01) Sanya Sukpanichnant; Tumtip Sangruchi; Plernpit Prasopchoke; Sumit Vatanavicharn; Suchai Charoenratanakul; Vichit Leenutaphong; Kanokvalai Kulthanan; Wanicha Cheunkongkaew; Mahidol UniversityPancreatic lymphoma presenting with clinical diabetes mellitus (DM) is rare. We report angiocentric T-cell lymphoma of the pancreas in a 65-year-old Thai woman who presented with progressive deterioration of visual acuity of both eyes. She had diabetic retinopathy (DR) diagnosed only 20 months after the diagnosis of DM at the age of 63. She later developed erythematous rashes, fever, and deterioration of consciousness; she eventually died of shock. A skin biopsy and bone marrow examination revealed angiocentric T-cell lymphoma. At autopsy, the pancreas and both eyes were extensively infiltrated by lymphoma. Widespread involvement of nearly all organs but superficial lymphadenopathy was detected. In contrast to other typical cases of long-standing DM, only mild atherosclerosis was noted, and no DR was found. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of lymphoma involving the pancreas and both eyes producing clinical DM and DR. Copyright © 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.
- PublicationHair removal using a long-pulsed Nd:YAG Laser: Comparison at fluences of 50, 80, and 100 J/cm2(2001-05-24) David J. Goldberg; Sirunya Silapunt; Skin Laser and Surgery Specialists of NY and NJ; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; Mahidol University;BACKGROUND. Unwanted hair is a widespread cosmetic problem. Many temporary methods of hair removal have proved unsatisfactory. A variety of laser systems with varying wave-lengths, pulse durations, and energy fluences are currently utilized for hair removal. Optimal laser parameters continue to require further investigation. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a long-pulse millisecond Nd:YAG hair removal laser utilizing fluences of either 50, 80, or 100 J/cm2. METHODS. Fifteen subjects were treated with a contact cooled 50 msec Nd:YAG laser at fluences 30, 50, or 100 J/cm2. Reduction in hair regrowth was measured at 3 months after treatment by comparing the terminal hair count to the baseline values. Potential complications were also evaluated. RESULTS. Average hair reduction at 3 months after treatment was 29%, 29%, and 27% in areas treated with a 50-msec Nd:YAG laser at fluences of 50, 80, and 100 J/cm2, respectively. Although short-term blistering was noted in two subjects, no hyperpimentation, hypopigmentation, or scarring was observed at 3 months after treatment. CONCLUSION. Long-pulse millisecond Nd:YAG laser hair removal with fluences of either 50, 80, or 100 J/cm2leads to similar efficacy with no significant adverse effects.
- PublicationRespiratory symptoms and pulmonary function among traffic police in bangkok, thailand(2001-01-01) Kanae Karita; Eiji Yano; Wanida Jinsart; Doungrutai Boudoung; Kenji Tamura; Teikyo University School of Medicine; Chulalongkorn University; Mahidol University; National Institute for Environmental Studies of JapanThe authors undertook a cross-sectional study of the potential adverse health effects of air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand. During 1998 and 1999, the authors administered lung function spirometry tests and a Thai version of the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) respiratory questionnaire to 78 male traffic police and 60 male nontraffic police in Bangkok, as well as to 68 male general police in Ayutthaya province, a rural area in Thailand. No consistent trend of decreased pulmonary function was observed in traffic police. The authors controlled for age, height and smoking index, after which mean levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and maximal expiratory flow rate in 25% of vital capacity ([Vdot]25) were significantly lower in Bangkok police than in Ayutthaya police. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Bangkok police was slightly higher than among Ayutthaya police. Multiple regression analysis identified age and workplace as statistically significant factors that contributed to the values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and [Vdot]25This study provided some evidence of an increase in prevalence of obstructive changes in the peripheral airways among traffic police in Bangkok. © 2001 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
- PublicationApplication of quantitative salt iodine analysis compared with the standard method(2001-06-01) Siriporn Chongchirasiri; Chaveevan Pattanachak; Supong Pattanachak; Napaporn Tojinda; Nucharee Putrasreni; Rudee Pleehachinda; Romsai Suwanik; Mahidol UniversityLaboratory investigation of 50 iodated salt samples (from producers, households, markets etc) were studied at the Research Nuclear Medicine Building, Siriraj Hospital. Two methods for the determination of iodine in salt are herein described. The standard method as recommended by The Programme Against Micronutrient Malnutrition (PAMM) / The Micronutrient Initiative (MI) / The International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) was the iodometric titration method. The starch-KI salt iodine quantitative method was developed in our laboratory for validation purposes. This method is high in precision, accuracy, sensitivity as well as specificity. The coefficient of variation (%CV) for intra and inter assay was below 10. Iodine contents as low as 10 ppm, could be detected. The proposed starch-KI method offered some advantages : e.g. not complicated, easier to learn and easier to perform competently, could be applied for spot qualitative test and readily performed outside the laboratory. The results obtained by the starch-KI method correlated well with the standard method (y = 0.98x - 3.22, r = 0.99).
- PublicationMolecular and phenotypic characteristics of neurotropic HIV-1 subtype E(2001-12-01) Surangrat Srisurapanon; Kwonchit Samransurp; Somsith Tunsupasawasdeekul; Uchara Chaowanich; Paijitr Warachit; Ruengpung Sutthent; Srisin Khusmith; Mahidol University; Thailand Ministry of Public HealthAlthough HIV-1 subtype E associated with neurological dysfunction is common, the virological characteristics of HIV-1 isolated from the CNS for this subtype have not yet been identified. In this study, paired blood and CSF isolated from patients with AIDs-defining illnesses were cultured, sequenced and aligned. Phylogenetic tree and nucleotide-distances from both blood and CSF were investigated. Cytopathicity and co-receptor usage of paired blood and CSF isolates were compared to define the specific characteristics of CNS isolates. The results confirmed that CSF isolates showed less cytopathicity. It was found that both blood and CSF isolates used either CXCR4 or CXCR4 and CCR5 as co-receptors. Interestingly, one CSF isolate using CCR3 as a co-receptor was identified. By sequence analysis, the pair-wise distances of envelope gp 120 sequence and those of all variable regions (except V3 region) between blood and CSF isolates were significantly different. The genetic distances in V1/V2 regions of CSF isolates showed more diversity than those of blood isolates. These findings suggest that the evolution of V1/V2 regions of CSF isolates seems to be an advantage for HIV-1 in CNS infection. In contrast, the genetic distance in V4 and V5 regions of CSF isolates showed less diversity, suggesting that conservation in these regions might be necessary during the process of HIV-1 CNS infection.