Scopus 2023

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    In-house polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic device on single cell trapping and culturing of Leukemia cell line: comparison between conventional and conventional with centrifugal methods
    (2023-04-01) Pimpin A.; Bhanpattanakul S.; Wongpakham T.; Tawatcharaporn C.; Siha-Umphai T.; Sinsiriphan M.; Chalermchuang A.; Tongmanee T.; Thanomsridetchai A.; Suwannaphan T.; Sripumkhaie W.; Pattamang P.; Chanasakulniyom M.; Piyaviriyakul P.; Jeamsaksiri W.; Sailasuta A.; Tharasanit T.; Kaewamatawong T.; Pimpin A.; Mahidol University
    To develop a suitable model to study biological and characterization of Cancer stem cells (CSCs), single cell trapping and culturing using microfluidic techniques have become a high-through put system that can manage and control microenvironment and practical intracellular analysis. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a microfluidic device for single cell trapping and culturing using the leukemia cell line as a cell model. Comparison between conventional and conventional with centrifugal methods was also analyzed. To compare trapping efficacy between these 2 methods, leukemia cell concentration of 1.5×106 cells/ml was loaded with a flow rate of 0.25 ml/h. In the conventional with centrifugal method, the chip was centrifuged twice with 1,000 rpm/rcf for 2 mins. From the results, the conventional method with centrifugal method showed significantly higher numbers of trapping microwells than the conventional method in all trapping manners. To examine culture efficacy, the cells were cultured in microfluidic devices and stained with trypan blue dye at 24, 48 and 72 h for cell viability study. The results showed that the conventional with centrifugal method showed a higher percentage than the conventional method at 48 h and significantly at 72 h. Both methods showed a high percentage of viable cells at 24 h. However, percentages at 48 and 72 h were significantly decreased. In summary, our developed microfluidic device was successful in trapping single cell pattern and short-term culture of single cell of the leukemia cell line. In addition, administration of an additional centrifugal method could be used to increase cell trapping efficacy when compared to the conventional method.
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    NEURAL NETWORK APPLICATION FOR FINE-BLANKED EDGE QUALITY IN ROLLED STEEL SHEETS
    (2023-01-01) Nakkhlai T.; Chookaew W.; Phromjan J.; Suvanjumrat C.; Rugsaj R.; Nakkhlai T.; Mahidol University
    The backing plate plays a crucial role in drum brakes, pushing the brake shoe against the drum for effective vehicle braking and road safety. Manufactured from steel sheets, it exhibits properties akin to a composite material, with characteristics varying based on directionality. The backing plate's profile features a continuous series of arcs, making the fine-blanked edge quality contingent on the arc radius. This research delved into fineblanked manufacturing through a combination of experimentation and simulation to discern the impact of the arc radius on edge quality. Employing a scanning electron microscope for edge quality investigation and benchmarking the finite element model against it, the study ensured a comprehensive understanding. The wellaligned finite element model served as input data for training an artificial neural network (ANN), specifically engineered to accurately estimate backing plate edge quality. This ANN is anticipated to be instrumental in designing future steel plate profiles boasting multiple arcs, offering precision in the manufacturing process for enhanced edge quality.
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    Ability and Reproducibility to Exert Force for Testing Muscle Strength by A Handheld Dynamometer of The Various Examiners: Sex and Body Weight Factors
    (2023-10-01) Kiatkulanusorn S.; Luangpon N.; Suato B.P.; Klarod K.; Srijunto W.; Wipatin P.; Kinandana P.; Watechagit S.; Kaoien C.; Werasirirat P.; Kiatkulanusorn S.; Mahidol University
    Kiatkulanusorn S, Luangpon N, Suato BP, Klarod K, Srijunto W, Wipatin P, Kinandana P, Watechagit S, Kaoien C, Werasirirat P. Ability and Reproducibility to Exert Force for Testing Muscle Strength by A Handheld Dynamometer of The Various Examiners: Sex and Body Weight Factors. JEPonline 2023;26(5):11–23. A minimum measurement error of the muscular strength test with hand held dynamometer (HHD) can be generated by a good plan if the examiner recognizes their ability to exert force for the test. The purpose of this study was to determine the true magnitude of forces that can be exerted by testers in different configurations. Reproducibility score of each test force produced by each tester was also described. Five experienced examiners from different sex and weights were challenged to test the same 14 target resistance loads (3 to 70 kg) over 2 sessions. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were explored in terms of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the minimal detectable change (MDC). The results showed that the maximum effort of each examiner was 60% to 70% body weight. Only male overweight examiner could complete 70 kg test load. The HHD results showed no statistically significant effect of BMI (P = 0.397) but a statistically significant effect of session (P < 0.001), sex (P = 0.039), and resistance load (P < 0.001). Excellent reliability was found in intra- examiner of all load (ICC = 0.920-0.997) and inter-examiner of a resistance load of 30 kg or less (ICC = 0.963-0.993). Intra-rater exhibited a greater measurement error at low resistance load, in particular < 10 kg (SEM, 1.9%-7.32% and MDC, 4.44%-17.07% for all examiner) and men examiners (SEM, 7.23-7.32% and MDC, 16.88%-17.07% for < 10 kg test load). Inter-rater showed greater measurement errors at low resistance load and under men examiners, in particular < 10 kg (SEM: 2.72%-4.50%, women examiner and 6.79%-7.28%, men examiner, MDC: 6.35%-10.51%, women examiner and 15.85%-16.98%, men examiner). In conclusion, the HHD test within the limit of the force generated by the examiner, the very weak muscle should be the critical concern to minimize the measurement error, especially for male examiners.
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    COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH RECTANGULAR PLATE FIN HEAT SINK
    (2023-01-01) Chokngamvong S.; Priyadumkol J.; Promtong M.; Loksupapaiboon K.; Suvanjumrat C.; Chokngamvong S.; Mahidol University
    This study focuses on developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for analyzing forced convection heat transfer in a heat sink with straight fins. The heat sink's practical design was considered, and OpenFOAM, an open-source CFD code software, was utilized for the model development. The study identified the SST k-ω turbulence model as suitable for the CFD model and validated its accuracy by comparing results with experimental data, showing an average error of less than 5.19%. The CFD results revealed the full development of the thermal boundary layer in the fin channels, emphasizing its significance for heat transfer performance. Notably, an increase in airflow inlet or Reynolds number was found to gradually enhance the heat transfer performance. The study established correlations between heat sink length, Reynolds number, and heat transfer performance, proposing a novel empirical equation with an average error of less than 4.46%. This equation was deemed a valuable tool for designing straight-fin heat sinks for electronic devices, and the CFD model, similar to this case, could be employed in future OpenFOAM-based studies.
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    MITIGATING SOIL COMPACTION IN SUGARCANE FIELDS: EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION STUDY OF PLUNGER CONFIGURATIONS
    (2023-01-01) Phromjan J.; Kaliske M.; Suvanjumrat C.; Phromjan J.; Mahidol University
    The detrimental impact of soil compaction resulting from agricultural machinery remains a significant concern in contemporary agriculture, influencing crop growth and production costs. This research employs a combination of experimental and simulation methods to investigate various configurations of plungers, representing features of agricultural equipment. Conducted in a laboratory setting, the study focuses on sandy clay loam soil, pertinent to sugarcane fields in Thailand. The soil-structure interaction model for plungers is developed using the finite element method, incorporating a modified Cam-clay plasticity model based on the critical state concept, and porous elasticity for soil simulation. Different plunger shapes, each producing distinct effects, are meticulously detailed. The outcomes of this research serve as a practical guide for the future design and development of agricultural equipment, offering insights to mitigate soil compaction issues and enhance productivity. The straightforward environmental arrangement employed enhances the applicability of the findings to real-world agricultural settings.
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    Biosynthesis of Cry5B-Loaded Sulfur Nanoparticles using Arthrobotrys oligospora Filtrate: Effects on Nematicidal Activity, Thermal Stability, and Pathogenicity against Caenorhabditis elegans
    (2023-01-01) Jammor P.; Sanguanphun T.; Meemon K.; Promdonkoy B.; Boonserm P.; Jammor P.; Mahidol University
    Cry5B, a crystal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is a bionematicide with potent nematicidal activity against various plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes. This protein, however, is susceptible to destruction by ultraviolet light, proteolytic enzymes, and high temperatures. This study aims to produce Cry5B protein for bionematicidal use and improve its stability and nematicidal efficacy by loading it intoArthrobotrys oligospora-mediated sulfur nanoparticles (AO-SNPs). Based on the mortality assay, the Cry5B protein exhibited dose-dependent nematicidal activity against the model organismCaenorhabditis elegans. The nematicidal activity, thermal stability, and pathogenic effects of Cry5B-loaded AO-SNPs (Cry5B-SNPs) were compared to those of free Cry5B. After 3 h of exposure to heat at 60 °C, Cry5B-SNPs had greater nematicidal activity than free Cry5B protein, indicating the effective formulation of Cry5B-SNPs that could be used as an alternative to current nematicide delivery strategies.
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    Encapsulation of Cyclosporine A-Loaded PLGA Nanospheres in Alginate Microbeads for Anti-Inflammatory Application
    (2023-01-01) Win S.Y.; Chavalitsarot M.; Eawsakul K.; Ongtanasup T.; Nasongkla N.; Win S.Y.; Mahidol University
    The controlled release of cyclosporine A (CsA) microencapsulated in alginate microbeads is a novel drug delivery system for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, CsA-loaded nanospheres encapsulated in alginate microbeads were applied to evaluate their controlled release profile and anti-inflammatory activity. Initially, a controlled-release drug delivery system was created by encapsulating CsA-loaded PLGA nanospheres within alginate microbeads. CsA-loaded PLGA nanospheres had a diameter of 418.70 ± 59.08 nm, a zeta potential of −22 ± 0.57 mV, and a polydispersity index of 0.517 ± 0.010. CsA-loaded nanosphere-encapsulated alginate microbeads were stable for 37 days. After encapsulating CsA-loaded PLGA nanospheres in the alginate microbeads, 5.60% of CsA was released after 24 h, and approximately 85.90% of the drugs were diffused until day 64. The cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the CsA released from the microbeads were evaluated in vitro using a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells). CsA-loaded nanosphere-encapsulated alginate microbeads inhibited 39.47 ± 1.71% of nitric oxide production from the RAW 264.7 cells on day 3, whereas nanosphere-encapsulated alginate microbeads inhibited 18.45 ± 1.56% only. CsA released from CsA-loaded nanosphere-encapsulated alginate microbeads had a RAW cell viability of 82.73 ± 5.58% on day 3 compared to 87.59 ± 0.69% of nanosphere-encapsulated alginate microbeads. The efficacy of the CsA-loaded nanosphere-encapsulated alginate microbeads in protecting the immune system via a controlled drug delivery system was established through anti-inflammatory and cell viability evaluation. Based on this research, the controlled release of CsA-loaded nanosphere-encapsulated alginate microbeads provides an innovative treatment for inflammatory diseases.
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    Retinoblastoma in Asia: Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcomes in 2112 Patients from 33 Countries
    (2023-01-01) Kaliki S.; Vempuluru V.S.; Mohamed A.; Al-Jadiry M.F.; Bowman R.; Chawla B.; Hamid S.A.; Ji X.; Kapelushnik N.; Kebudi R.; Sthapit P.R.; Rojanaporn D.; Sitorus R.S.; Yousef Y.A.; Fabian I.D.; Abdulqader R.A.; Aggarwal P.; Ahmad A.; Akib M.N.R.; Al Mesfer S.A.; Al Ani M.H.; Al-Badri S.A.F.; Angeles Alcasabas A.P.; Al-Dahmash S.A.; Al-Haddad C.; Yahya Al-Hussaini H.H.; Al-Jumaily U.; Alkatan H.M.; Razzaq Mahmood Al-Mafrachi A.A.; Samad Majeed Al-Shaheen A.A.; Al-Shammary E.H.; Amiruddin P.O.; Armytasari I.; Astbury N.J.; Atalay H.T.; Ataseven E.; Atchaneeyasakul L.o.; Balayeva R.; Bascaran C.; Begimkulova A.S.; Bhaduri A.; Bhat S.; Bhattacharyya A.; Blum S.; Buaboonnam J.; Burton M.J.; Caspi S.; Chaudhry S.; Chen W.; Chuluunbat T.; Dangboon W.; Das A.; Das P.; Das S.; Du Y.; Dudeja G.; Eka Sutyawan I.W.; Fadoo Z.; Faranoush M.; Foster A.; Frenkel S.; Ghassemi F.; Gomel N.; Gunasekera D.S.; Gündüz A.K.; Gupta H.; Gupta S.; Gupta V.; Hamzah N.; Hasanreisoglu M.; Hassan S.; Haydar H.A.; Hongeng S.; Hussein Al-Janabi A.N.; Islamov Z.; Janjua T.A.; Jeeva I.; Jo D.H.; Kantar M.; Keomisy J.; Khan Z.J.; Khaqan H.A.; Khetan V.; Khodabande A.; Kim J.H.; Kiratli H.; Koç I.; Kulvichit K.; Kuntorini M.W.; Li C.; Li K.; Limbu B.; Liu C.H.; Lutfi D.; Mahajan A.; Maitra P.; Makimbetov E.K.; Maktabi A.M.Y.; Manzhuova L.; Masud S.; Kaliki S.; Mahidol University
    Purpose: To describe the clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of children who received a diagnosis of retinoblastoma in 2017 throughout Asia. Design: Multinational, prospective study including treatment-naïve patients in Asia who received a diagnosis of retinoblastoma in 2017 and were followed up thereafter. Participants: A total of 2112 patients (2797 eyes) from 96 retinoblastoma treatment centers in 33 Asian countries. Interventions: Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, enucleation, and orbital exenteration. Main Outcome Measures: Enucleation and death. Results: Within the cohort, 1021 patients (48%) were from South Asia (SA), 503 patients (24%) were from East Asia (EA), 310 patients (15%) were from Southeast Asia (SEA), 218 patients (10%) were from West Asia (WA), and 60 patients (3%) were from Central Asia (CA). Mean age at presentation was 27 months (median, 23 months; range, < 1–261 months). The cohort included 1195 male patients (57%) and 917 female patients (43%). The most common presenting symptoms were leukocoria (72%) and strabismus (13%). Using the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual, Eighth Edition, classification, tumors were staged as cT1 (n = 441 [16%]), cT2 (n = 951 [34%]), cT3 (n = 1136 [41%]), cT4 (n = 267 [10%]), N1 (n = 48 [2%]), and M1 (n = 129 [6%]) at presentation. Retinoblastoma was treated with intravenous chemotherapy in 1450 eyes (52%) and 857 eyes (31%) underwent primary enucleation. Three-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for enucleation and death were 33% and 13% for CA, 18% and 4% for EA, 27% and 15% for SA, 32% and 22% for SEA, and 20% and 11% for WA (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: At the conclusion of this study, significant heterogeneity was found in treatment outcomes of retinoblastoma among the regions of Asia. East Asia displayed better outcomes with higher rates of globe and life salvage, whereas Southeast Asia showed poorer outcomes compared with the rest of Asia. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
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    PRODUCTION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS PELLETS FROM WOODY AND AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES
    (2023-01-01) Inthapat P.; Boontanon S.K.; Prachakittikul P.; Eiad-ua A.; Jadsadajerm S.; Setkit N.; Worasuwannarak N.; Chaiwat W.; Inthapat P.; Mahidol University
    Two different combined process sequences of biomass pretreatment between pelletization after torrefaction (PAT) and pelletization before torrefaction (PBT) were comparatively investigated to produce torrefied biomass pellets (TBP) from woody biomasses, e.g. Leucaena (LC) and rubberwood (RW), and agricultural residues, e.g. rice straw (RS) and sugarcane leaves (SCL). In this study, each sample was thermally treated at 260-300°C for 5 min during torrefaction process. It was found that both woody biomasses and agricultural residues had mass yield lower than 63 wt%, while the bulk density of TBPs were improved higher than 400 kg/m3. For equilibrium moisture content (EMC) analysis, TBPs via PBT method had lower EMC than raw pellet after being kept at 30°C for 12 days. For the thermochemical properties, the TBPs had higher FC, %C, and HHVs than raw pellets in all biomass and increased with torrefaction temperature. When comparing the TBPs between PAT and PBT torrefied pellets, the HHVs of PBT torrefied pellets at 300°C were achieved highest at 27 MJ/kg (dry-ash-free, daf, basis) for SCL sample, which was considered as higher than the standard value at ≥21 MJ/kg of thermally treated biomass pellets (ISO/TS 17225-8:2016) and also in the range at 25.7-28.2 MJ/kg of coal. In addition, the combustion performance index (Sn) of PAT and PBT torrefied pellets was lower than raw pellets, showing a similar property as coal and lignite. Briefly, this study suggests using PBT pretreatment process to produce high quality solid fuel, particularly for agricultural residues such as SCL for a potential substitute of currently used coal.
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    Measuring The Effectiveness of Private Electronic System Organizers Regulations In Developing Social Media Equilibrium
    (2023-01-01) Sitabuana T.H.; Adhari A.; Suryani L.S.; Sanjaya D.; Amri I.F.; Sitabuana T.H.; Mahidol University
    Technological developments, especially social media, potentially have a negative impact that pretend to social disintegration and instability. To prevent and create a healthy and conducive digital space, the Government issued the Minister of Communication and Information Regulation No.5/2020 concerning Private ESOs. This regulation gives the government authority to supervise Private ESOs and protect social media content. This research aims to examine ministerial regulation effectiveness in realizing social media equilibrium and its impact on digital democracy in Indonesia. This is a sociolegal research. The data was obtained from observation, expert interviews, and literature studies which were analyzed qualitatively. Normatively, restrictions and supervision to the right to use social media through private ESOs can be carried out to be in line with Pancasila‟s Spirit. However, there are fundamental errors in ministerial regulation: (1) multiple interpretations norm; (2) unclear parameters of supervision; and (3) weak legal position of ministerial regulations in law enforcement. Sociologically, the presence of ministerial regulations is weak and ineffective because they are: (1) rejected by stakeholders; (2) easy to change; and (3) slowly responded in socialization process and community compliance. More comprehensive implementation regulation is required with, supervision through an electronic system approach to increase the role and participation of community.